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Hugo de Garis

Prof. Dr. Hugo de Garis is professor of computer science and mathematical physics at Wuhan University, China, where he migrated in 2006. He was formerly an associate professor of Computer Science at Utah State University, Utah, USA. His research area is “artificial brains,” a research area that he has largely pioneered. He has lived in 7 countries and is the author of the following books:

The Artilect War: Cosmists vs. Terrans: A Bitter Controversy Concerning Whether Humanity Should Build Godlike Massively Intelligent Machines, Etc Publications, 2005 (available on A Chinese version of this book appeared in 2007.

Multis and Monos: What the Multi-Cultured Can Teach the Mono-Cultured: Towards the Creation of a Global State, ETC Publications, 2010 (available on

Artificial Brains: An Evolved Neural Net Module Approach (contracted by World Scientific, to be published in 2011).

Topological Quantum Computing: Making Quantum Computers Robust by Manipulating Quantum Bits in Topological Quantum Fields (to be published by World Scientific in 2012).

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Hugo de Garis Quotes

Humans should not stand in the way of a higher form of evolution. These machines are godlike. It is human destiny to create them.

I believe that 21st century technologies will allow the creation of "artilects" (artificial intellects, artificial intelligences, ultra intelligent machines), with intellectual capacities zillions of times greater than those of human beings. I believe that this technological possibility will force the issue of whether artilects should be built or not. I believe that humanity will split into two major ideological camps, one in favor of building artilects (the "Cosmists") and those opposed (the "Terrans"). I believe that the ideological disagreements between these two groups on this issue will be so strong, that a major "artilect" war, killing billions of people, will be almost inevitable before the end of the 21st century.

Civilizations throughout the universe have probably already made this transition. Our solar system is a billion years younger than others. And the time it takes to go from human to Cosmist to artilect is no more than a few centuries. The evolution is inevitable. After all, the real potential for intelligence is not biological -- that's too primitive.